Attorney General Luisa Ortega issued the arrest warrants, noting, "Groups outside the law have violent political plans."
Former presidential candidate and United Nations Ambassador Diego Arria, former oil executive Pedro Burelli, and Ricardo Koesling, a lawyer and advocate, are wanted for questioning regarding the alleged plot.
Maria Corina Machado, an opposition leader and former legislator, called the allegations "infamy."
Relations between the government and opposition are especially strained since anti-government demonstrations began in February. Protesters are demanding an end to goods shortages, inflation and high crime.