According to the agency, the pilots failed to follow proper procedure as they landed the Boeing 737-800, bringing the plane down 2,600 feet beyond the optimal landing zone on the 8,911-foot runway. Insufficient pilot training and fatigue were cited as possible factors.
"The flight crew members were possibly fatigued after being on duty for nearly 12 hours, and awake for more than 14 hours."
The pilots did not account for the duration required to stop the plane in "heavy rain" conditions with the wind at their rear, and standing water on the runway.
The air traffic controllers at Norman Manley International Airport were also faulted for failing to alert the pilots to "heavy rain" and assigned the plane an incorrect runway.
Unable to stop, the plane carrying 148 passengers slid through a fence, broke into three pieces, and skidded to a stop on a rock shore of the Caribbean. 14 people were seriously injured.
In response to the crash, American Airlines revised its flight manuals and issued a memo to its pilots on how to improve safe landings.