The gathering, billed as a prayer rally, closed a section of Jerusalem's Route 1 into the city, the Jerusalem Post reported.
About 3,500 police officers and several helicopters were deployed to ensure order, police spokesman Micky Rosenfeld said.
There were no reports of injuries or violence, except for two pro-draft protesters who were pepper-sprayed, Channel 2 reported.
Haredi men, who typically are religious school students, have been exempt from Israel's military conscription.
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