It is illegal to have gay sex in Nigeria both under Sharia -- or Islamic -- and secular law.
President Goodluck Jonathan signed the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act, tightening laws against same-sex marriages, gay groups and shows of same-sex public affection earlier this month.
Under Sharia law, those convicted of homosexuality can be stoned to death.
A 12th person -- a Christian -- is being tried under secular law.
"What this act is saying is that they [gay people] do not deserve to exist," Dorothy Aken-Ova, a human rights activist, told the BBC.
Jibrin Danlami Hassan, a commissioner of Bauchi state's Sharia Commission, said the accused were arrested by residents of Bauchi.
"They accept that they are doing that dirty game," he said of the accused.