The incident happened outside the Bangui airport after a group of several hundred Christian demonstrators threw rocks at a vehicle carrying Chadian soldiers, Radio France Internationale reported.
The protesters were demanding the resignation of President Michel Djotodia -- the first Muslim president in the predominantly Christian nation. They also wanted the Chadian soldiers, who are part of the African Union's MISCA -- Mission internationale de soutien a la Centrafrique sous conduite africaine -- force, to leave the Central African Republic.
The soldiers opened fire on the protesters, killing at least one and injuring another.
French troops intervened and removed the victims from the scene.
Amnesty International estimates about 1,000 people have been killed in the Central African Republic since Dec. 5, the start of an anti-Christian militia offensive.