The protest, called over last week's killing by police of an Islamist student, was the first time Islamists had occupied the square since the coup that ousted President Mohamed Morsi, Ahram Online reported.
Tanks and tear gas were used to disperse the protesters.
The square has now been reopened to traffic.
Tahrir Square and other major protest venues have sealed off to major protest days since Morsi was forced from office in July.
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