The arrests were made during operations in Madrid, Palma de Mallorca, Toledo and parts of Cantabria, ThinkSpain reported.
Police said the men found women in Nigeria, promised them better lives in Europe, flew them to Mexico and Brazil with fake passports, and then on to Paris before being smuggled into Spain.
Once in Spain, the women were forced into prostitution, police said. During one raid, officers said said they found a man performing an abortion on one of the trafficked women.
Five women were freed as part of the operation.
Police said they discovered luxury goods, including expensive alcohol and top-of-the-line television sets, in boxes hidden in a fleet of at least 120 vans.
Investigators said the goods were stolen and were being sold on the black market.
Of the men arrested, eight had valid residence permits allowing them to live in Spain, police said.