Amarildo de Souza, a bricklayer who lived in Rio de Janeiro's largest shantytown, Rochina, left his home to buy spices to cook some fish he'd caught for his family's dinner. Souza's wife, Elizabete Gomes da Silva, told the BBC she hasn't seen or heard from her husband since.
Police have said they picked up Gomez as part of a drug trafficking investigation but released him after his interrogation.
Silva said she believes her husband, who is epileptic, was killed when police tortured him during an interrogation.
Four of the officers charged brought Souza to the police station. Five others were present during his interrogation. The 10th person charged was a supervisor on duty.
Silva's disappearance has sparked mass protests in Brazil, with people angry about brutal government crackdowns in poor neighborhoods in advance of the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympics being hosted in the city.