Troops aided by helicopters arrested two of the suspected attackers, the Los Angeles Times reported.
The clash came as the Egyptian military is involved in a major push against Islamist militants in the Sinai Peninsula in the wake of the army's ouster of President Mohamed Morsi.
Police fired tear gas to break up scattered protests Friday by the Muslim Brotherhood, of which Morsi is a member, in various places around Cairo.
The health ministry said one protester was killed in the demonstrations and 17 were injured, Ahram Online reported.
The Brotherhood has promised large demonstrations Sunday as the army marks the anniversary of the 1973 war against Israel.