In the recordings, the doctor, whose name was not reported, and Mubarak are heard discussing politics, including Mubarak's criticism of ousted President Mohamed Morsi, Ahram Online reported.
Mubarak, who was imprisoned from March 2011 through Aug. 21 of this year, is heard praising the Egyptian military for removing Morsi from office.
The doctor allegedly leaked the recordings to the press, and the content was published in full online and as excerpts in print.
Mubarak filed a complaint against the doctor, alleging that when the conversations took place, he was receiving a medical checkup and did not know he was being recorded.
A pretrial hearing in the case is scheduled for Oct. 3.
Mubarak was previously sentenced to life in prison for his complicity in the killing of protesters during Egypt's uprising. His conviction was overturned in January and a retrial was ordered.
He was released from prison because he had reached the legal limit for pretrial detention, but has been placed under house arrest at a military hospital in Cairo.