Charlebois, who has been incarcerated since 2003, was convicted of second-degree murder, conspiring to commit murder, trafficking narcotics and participation in a criminal organization, the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. said.
He escaped from Montee St-Francois Institution Saturday night and police have issued a country-wide warrant for his arrest.
Authorities are asking for the public's help in tracking Charlebois down.
The suspect is described as weighing 200 pounds. He has brown hair and brown eyes, and has Rene tattooed on his left arm.
Police are advising people not to approach Charlebois, as he is considered dangerous.
Martin Bashir resigns from MSNBC over Sarah Palin comments
Texas principal bans speaking Spanish, stirs controversy