The Syrian army post was destroyed, the Israeli army said, adding a decision to return fire came after three mortar shells were fired by the Syrian army at Israel Saturday morning.
Israel also submitted a complaint to the United Nations peacekeeping force deployed on the Syria-Israel border, Haaretz said.
The newspaper noted it is the eighth time Israel has fired a Tammuz missile in response to cross border shelling.
In an unrelated incident, some 14 injured Syrians were transported to hospitals in Israel for treatment Saturday.
Since the beginning of the civil war in Syria, some 123 Syrians have been treated in Israeli hospitals, Haaretz said. The Israeli army has set up a field hospital near the border with Syria where injured Syrians receive initial treatment and a decision is made whether they require hospital care.