Mansour also commended Egypt's youth, army, police, the "free" Egyptian media and political powers for their role in events leading up to and after Sunday's massive demonstrations against ousted President Mohammad Morsi's government, al-Masry al-Youm reported.
At least 10 people were killed and 481 were injured in clashes between Morsi's supporters and opponents after the military takeover, Ahram Online reported. Unconfirmed reports out of Egypt, however, said at least 14 people had been killed in clashes since Wednesday night.
After his swearing-in, Mansour said: "I received the assignment order from those who possess it, the great people of Egypt, who are the leader and the source of all powers after they corrected the path of their great revolution on [June 30]."
"[The] worship of rulers which turns them into demi-gods has ended forever," claiming that presidents in Egypt will no longer enjoy immunity," said Mansour, the Supreme Constitutional Court chief.
Mansour said presidential and parliamentary elections would represent the public will for a better future, democracy and progress.
Defense Minister General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi Wednesday outlined the next steps for Egypt's future, including suspending the constitution and appointing Mansour to succeed Morsi, who is in military custody at an undisclosed location.
Mansour will lead a technocratic government that will be "inclusive of all political factions," including youth, Sisi said.
To restore calm, Egypt's armed forces warned they won't allow attacks on Morsi's supporters, al-Arabiya reported.
"The armed forces will not allow anyone to insult, provoke or abuse those belonging to the Islamic current," a statement said.
Egypt's general prosecutor ordered the arrests of senior Muslim Brotherhood leaders Mohammed Badie and his deputy Khairat el-Shater, accusing them of inciting violence, Egyptian media reported. At least 38 Muslim Brotherhood officials have been arrested.
The council, which ruled Egypt for more than 16 months after the Feb. 11, 2011, ouster of President Hosni Mubarak, has no interest in politics, Sisi said, explaining it ousted Morsi because he failed to fulfill "the hope for a national consensus."
The general stood on a broad stage, flanked by Egypt's top Muslim and Christian clerics along with other political leaders including Egyptian scholar, politician and Nobel Peace laureate Mohamed ElBaradei and Islamist ultraconservative Galal Morra, who all endorsed the takeover.
At the White House, President Obama urged the military to move quickly to return Egypt to a democratically elected government.
"We are deeply concerned by the decision of the Egyptian armed forces to remove President Morsi and suspend the Egyptian Constitution," Obama said.