The protests began more than a week ago over bus fare hikes, but have since been focused on corruption and the cost of next year's World Cup soccer tournament, the BBC reported.
More than 1 million people took to the streets Thursday in cities throughout Brazil.
One person was killed Thursday at a protest in Sao Paulo state when a car drove through a barricade. Twenty-nine people have been injured since the protests started in Rio de Janeiro and 35 in Brasilia.
Rousseff, who has canceled a trip to Japan next week to deal with the crisis, is expected to give a public address after the emergency meeting, the BBC said.
Many protesters say they feel underrepresented and say preparations for the World Cup are taking money away from social needs, The Guardian, Britain, reported.
"There are no politicians who speak for us," said Jamaime Schmitt, an engineer. "This is not just about bus fares any more. We pay high taxes and we are a rich country, but we can't see this in our schools, hospitals and roads."