Iranian officials said the network was trained by the Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency.
Israel had no comment on the Iranian allegations.
"The ringleader of this group was recruited by the spy agency of one of the most dependent and reactionary Arab countries in the region. The prime suspects in the case ... were assigned the mission to set up an operational group to carry out acts of terror in the country ... on Election Day ... A 12-member group was formed upon this order with the purpose of sabotage," said a statement released Sunday by Iran's Ministry of Intelligence, Press TV reported.
The national elections are scheduled June 14.
Intelligence Ministry officials said the mission of the alleged network was to assassinate prominent Iranian religious leaders and create sectarian violence in the country, Press TV reported.
Mossad operatives in Israel trained the alleged spy network, Iran's Fars news agency said.
Iranian security officials last week revealed the arrests of some members of the Mujahadin el-Khalq organization who allegedly also planned to sabotage the upcoming national elections, the news agency said.