The raids took place after states of emergency were declared in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states where more than 2,000 people have died since the Islamic militant group Boko Haram has been active since 2009, the BBC reported Friday.
Banks, police stations and prisons were destroyed by fighting in the town of Daura, residents said.
A dusk-to-dawn curfew was imposed in Adamawa.
Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan said he made the emergency declarations and launched the military initiative to "put an end to the impunity of insurgents and terrorists."
On Thursday, soldiers raided Boko Haram camps in the Sambisa Game Reserve, which is known to be a haven for the group, the BBC reported.
Explosions were heard in Katsina state, the news service said.