The Fittja mosque was built in 2007, but local police earlier this month ruled the prayer call wouldn't violate noise ordinances, The Local.se reported.
The prayer call can be conducted from three to five minutes on Friday from midday to 1 p.m.
In September, local officials voted to repeal a 1994 ban on prayer calls.
The call left some worshippers very emotional.
"I don't go to the mosque as often as before but I wanted to experience this," said Guluz Kayhan, 45, wiping tears from her eyes.
A friend added: "I'm really proud of Sweden. I am proud of being part of a society that respects different religions."