The pair was in possession of 4.4 pounds of anabolic steroids at the time of their arrest Tuesday, police said.
They allegedly had been selling the steroids in Perm in the past year, RIA Novosti reported.
The names of the men are not being released, but authorities said the weightlifter has received a governmental honor for winning an international championship.
His older accomplice is not a weightlifter, police said.
The arrest comes one day after Yuri Nagornykh, Russia's deputy sports minister, said positive doping tests for Russia athletes are declining.
He did not provide any data to support his claim, RIA Novosti said.