The report showed thousands of homeless people -- particularly women and children -- have nowhere to go following forced evictions from displacement camps.
Tens of thousands of families still live in shelters made of tin sheets or frayed tarpaulins.
The Haitian authorities' failure to guarantee human rights has made it difficult for the people to engage in reconstruction efforts and regain safe drinking water, sanitation, healthcare, schools and other essential services, Amnesty International said.
The treatment of women in the camps that sprang up after the earthquake is poor, the group said. Women, many of whom bear most if not all the burdens of the household, meet with exclusion from power and decision-making, poverty, sex-based violence and inadequate living conditions.
While the numbers of displaced people and makeshift camps have decreased since the July 2010 peak of about 1.5 million people living in 1,555 camps, much of the reduction is due to forced evictions condoned or carried out by authorities without providing those evicted with legal and procedural safeguards required under various international human rights treaties to which Haiti is a party, Amnesty International said.