The protest by members of the Muslim Brotherhood was a response to a court ruling this week to release former president Hosni Mubarak from prison because his provisional detention had expired, al-Masry al-Youm reported.
Mubarak is awaiting retrial on charges he was complicit in the deaths of protesters during the January 2011 uprising.
The protesters issued a list of demands that included dismissal of Justice Minister Ahmed Mekky and prosecutions of the head of a judges association and a former top prosecutor.
The protesters demanded a purge of the media and judiciary, reduction of the retirement age for judges from 70 to 60, and the establishment of "revolutionary tribunals."
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