The tsunami and earthquake led to an accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, NHK TV News said.
Protesters began marching from a Tokyo park to the government office district, and chanted slogans for the abolition of nuclear plants, NHK said.
The organizers of the rally met with former Prime Minister Naoto Kan and other officials, and told them about their concerns, NHK said.
The demonstration was smaller than a similar one last summer, organizers said, but similar rallies are being held across the country.
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