An opposition party's proposal to summon Prime Minister Boyko Borisov to Parliament for the vote was voted down, the Sofia News Agency reported.
Members of Parliament later voted to accept the government's resignation, the news agency said in a bulletin on its website.
In reporting that Borisov would not be present for the vote, Agriculture Minister Miroslav Naydenov said the prime minister was working in the Council of Ministers building in Sofia.
Borisov's surprise resignation Wednesday climaxed days of massive protests against economic stagnation and austerity measures.
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