The suspects, all from Somalia, include a cultural mediator at the Italian embassy and a worker for the United Nations' World Food Program, ANSA reported.
Police said they face charges of assisting unlawful immigration, forgery of documents, illegal financial activities and money laundering.
ANSA said 23 other people have been linked to the operation.
The ring had units in Kenya, Libya and Italy, as well as logistical bases all over Rome.
ANSA said the operation had a turnover of $33 million per year.