Those killed in the wreck in the eastern state's Aurangabad district included 11 children, the Press Trust of India news agency reported.
The report said 10 more people on the truck were injured and had been admitted to a hospital. The extent of their injuries or condition was not immediately available.
The vehicle rolled into a roadside trench after it overturned on National Highway 139, police said. The crash occurred early Thursday.
Some of the injured people told police the driver of the truck and his helper fled the scene of the accident, a police official told the news agency.
The workers, who had come to the district to harvest crops, were returning to their village when the incident occurred.