Russia's Itar-Tass news agency said the Tu-204 passenger jet caught fire after going off the runway at the Vnukov airport in the capital.
The eight people aboard the plane were identified as crew members with Russian Red Wings Airline and were on a flight from the Czech Republic.
Officials said the captain of the aircraft was among those killed.
The Interior Ministry said the plane rolled off the airport grounds on to an adjacent highway, forcing police to close the road.
The Russian government launched an investigation into the accident. Sources told Russia's RIA Novosti news service pilot error was suspected.