Capt. Alexander Kuvshinov from the Vladivostok seaport reported the incident Thursday.
ITAR-Tass said trawler Alanet's engine failed and those on the ship are stranded.
Officials said stormy weather was creating 13-foot waves and winds of 33-40 miles per hour.
Kuvshinov said the ship is in Japan's zone of responsibility and Japanese rescuers are heading to help the sailors.
The Alanet is owned by Kamchatka company Kamchatrybprom.