The woman, whose name was not reported, was arrested Wednesday at a resort, the Bangkok Post reported.
Police said the 13-year-old girl was taken to a hospital in Sakon Nakhon province for exhaustion.
Her mother allegedly confessed to forcing her daughter to work as a waitress during the day and a prostitute at night, starting in Nakhon Pathom province and ending up in Sakon Nakhon.
"I first tricked my daughter into prostitution but she later yielded because she wanted to help her poor family," the mother said.
She said her daughter started working as a prostitute about two months ago.
She was charged with the trafficking of a minor and running a prostitution business.