The ruling Party of Regions of President Viktor Yanukovych, won about 30 percent of the vote in the election, maintaining the party's alliance with the Community Party of Ukraine, RIA Novosti reported.
Leaders of the three major opposition parties questioned the results during the protest, citing numerous reports of election violations across the country.
Special forces police had formed a cordon near the rally as a police car used a loudspeaker to tell the protesters to immediately disperse, ForUm reported.
The Fatherland party of jailed former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko said in a statement it was considering calling for snap elections for president and parliament. The next presidential election is scheduled for 2015.
Opposition leaders also called on the election commission to declare opposition candidates the winners in 13 election districts.
Both Yanuykovych and Prime Minister Mykola Azarov have said the elections were free and fair, but international observers alleged the vote was marred by abuses of administrative resources, a lack of press freedom in reporting on the campaign and non-disclosure of campaign finances of some pro-government parties.
Volodymyr Lytvyn, the speaker of Parliament, said any committee created to investigate allegations of election fraud should be headed by an impartial person.
He instructed the deputy speaker and committee chairs to draft regulations for the investigative committee.