Costas Vaxevanis was arrested on charges of violation of privacy, and then was quickly released, after he published the list Saturday in his magazine "Hot Doc," Ekathimerini.com reported.
In an interview uploaded onto the Internet before his arrest, Vaxevanis says he was being unfairly targeted.
"Instead of arresting the tax evaders and the ministers who had the list in their hands, they are trying to arrest the truth and freedom of the press," he said.
While he was being arrested, Vaxevanis tweeted: "They're entering my house with a prosecutor now, they're arresting me. Spread the word."
The Hot Doc list of 2,059 names includes at least three politicians, including two conservative former ministers, one of whom is deceased, and a current adviser to Prime Minister Antonis Samaras.
The journalist is scheduled to appear in court Monday
Prosecutors, the Greek Parliament and financial regulators have announced plans to go after suspected tax evaders, and protests of economic conditions in Greece often feature chants of "Thieves! Traitors!" as members of the public lose patience with tolerance of tax evasion.