Binyamin Netanyahu told the ministers details from the first part of the meeting held the day before were the subject of a press leak, Haaretz reported.
"A short while after the meeting yesterday something serious happened," Netanyahu said. "A leak from the cabinet discussions ... someone severely damaged the trust that Israel's citizens have in this forum."
At Tuesday's eight-hour meeting, the security cabinet received its annual briefing by leaders of the country's intelligence community.
The session was expected to focus on Iran's nuclear program, the civil war in Syria and the Muslim Brotherhood's rise to power in Egypt.
A story that appeared in the Hebrew daily Yediot Aharonot about the meeting said the cabinet was shocked to learn that the country's different security agencies do not agree about the Iranian issue, The Jerusalem Post reported.
Netanyahu told the ministers before abruptly adjourning Wednesday's meeting he does not blame the media, which was just doing its job.
Instead he said he had "a grievance against the person who broke the most basic trust needed to hold security cabinet meetings, and harmed the ability to hold classified meetings."