Ranjan Mathai of India and his Pakistani counterpart, Jalil Abbas Jilani, began their talks in New Delhi, the Indo-Asian News Service reported.
The talks come after the recent arrest of Abu Jundal by New Delhi police when he arrived at Indira Gandhi Airport from Saudi Arabia.
IANS reported Jundal admitted he was present in the "control room" of the terrorist group Lashkar-e-Toiba -- known as LeT -- in Karachi, Pakistan. Press Trust of India has reported he was giving direction to the 10 terrorists who carried out the 2008 Mumbai attacks, in which 166 people were killed.
IANS said Indian officials are expected to ask Pakistan officials how Jundal got Pakistani passports and Pakistan's identity cards, issued to Jundal in the name of Riyasat Ali.
The Indian side is to hand over the documents as well as a list of Jundal's Pakistani contacts he revealed during interrogation by security agencies, the news service said.
Indian Home Minister P. Chidambaram said last week Jundal's arrest indicated state support in Pakistan for the Mumbai attacks. Pakistani Interior Minister Rehman Malik said in response India had failed to control its own citizens.
Talks between Mathai and Jilani, which resume Thursday, were also to focus on peace and security, Jammu and Kashmir, India's government said in a news release.