International Security Assistance Force leaders said "multiple insurgents" died in the joint operation in Logar province, but reported no civilian casualties, the Los Angeles Times reported.
Police said at least 12 insurgents and commanders died in the airstrike.
Logar's police chief, Ghulam Sakhi Roghlewani, said the strike targeted Taliban commanders meeting in the Baraki Barak district.
The airstrike, called after coalition forces came under fire, destroyed a compound, Western and Afghan officials said.
Afghan officials quoted villagers as saying the raid killed 18 civilians who were inside the walled compound.
Coalition forces said two women were injured in what was described as a "precision airstrike," the Times said.