Dmitry Rogozin made the vow in a Twitter message after NATO Secretary General Anders Fog Rasmussen was quoted as saying the alliance would continue its program to establish a shield around Western Europe, RIA Novosti reported.
"Well, as for us, we also feel responsibility for protecting our population from your missile threat and will create a reliable air and space defense," wrote Rogozin, who was previously Russia's envoy to NATO.
Russia and NATO have an agreement in place to cooperate on a European missile shield, but Russia wants to operate a single joint system while NATO wants separate systems that share information. Russia has in the past said it was concerned a NATO missile-defense system would allow the West to attack Russia without the risk of a retaliatory strike.
Rogozin said efforts to work out a compromise at the weekend global security conference in Munich were unsuccessful.