Police said Lalita Tanti was kidnapped Oct. 21 from her school in an unnamed village in the Bijapur district and her mutilated body was found two days later in a forest, the BBC reported Tuesday from Raipur, the state's capital.
While two of the girl's neighbors were arrested, police said they believe more villagers were involved.
The girl was offered as a sacrifice to ensure a bumper crop, police said.
"The body was recovered from near a temple so we believe that she was sacrificed," a police official told the BBC. "Our investigations have revealed that there was a dispute between the two accused people and the victim's father … ."
The official said police believe other villagers were involved in the crime as "such kinds of ritual sacrifice involve a whole community or a village."