The two countries signed a contract in 2007 requiring Russia to provide Iran with at least five S-300 systems, Iran's Press TV reported.
Russia has said it is unable to deliver the systems because of U.N. Security Council sanctions preventing the sales to the Islamic Republic.
"Legally, we believe the shipment of S-300 system is not subject to the U.N. Security Council resolution so we filed our lawsuit, hoping the international court ruling would help Russia carry out the supplies," Seyyed Mahmoud Reza Sajjadi, Iran's ambassador to Russia, said at a news conference in Moscow Wednesday.
The S-300 missile defense system is considered to be one of the most advanced anti-aircraft systems in the world. It has the ability to track 100 targets simultaneously while engaging 12.
The system developed in Russia is designed to knock out anti-aircraft and cruise missiles and also ballistic missiles.