Guillermo Ruedo Toledo, alias El Profe, was captured in a joint operation between local police and Colombian anti-narcotics authorities in the capital of Valle del Cauca department, Cali, RCN Radio reported on Friday.
Toledo was allegedly using a fruit company, Fruti Cali, as a cover to smuggle drugs from Cali to the United States via San Andres and Mexico.
He was taken to the country's capital of Bogota where a judicial investigation will decide whether to extradite him to the United States.
The United States has recently praised Colombia's measures in domestic and international counter-terrorism by capturing and extraditing drug traffickers.
An estimated 148 Colombians were extradited to the United States in 2010.