The diamonds, emeralds, and gold and silver coins and figurines were found in underground chambers at the 16th century Sree Padmanabhaswamy temple in Kerala state, the BBC reported Saturday.
Inspectors are cataloguing the items, which have not been officially value but are believed to be worth about 28 billion rupees, or more than $600 million.
"I have instructed the police chief to reinforce security further following the findings and it would be there permanently," Oomen Chandy, the state's chief minister, said.
The treasure found in six vaults is believed to have been stored below the temple for more than a century, put there over a period of time by the Maharajahs of Travancore, the Times News Network of India reported.
Notable deaths of 2014 [PHOTOS]