The numbers were reported by the National Bureau of Statistics based on the country's latest census, taken every 10 years.
The bureau said the figures show an annual average population growth of 0.57 percent since 2000, indicating a slow population growth, China's state-run Xinhua news agency reported.
China's urban population in 2010 stood at 665.57 million, 49.68 percent of the total population. The current urban population is up 13.46 percent from 2000.
Chinese President Hu Jintao told the political bureau of the Communist Party's central committee Tuesday that the government will seek to improve the current family planning policy to maintain a low birth rate.
He said population is a key factor in the country's economic and social development and its future. He said problems relating to birth sex ratio and gender equity efforts should be addressed.