A similar operation in Thailand resulted in three arrests, Spanish officials said in a release.
The ministry said cell members stole documents and sent them to Thailand, where they were forged and passed along to terrorist groups with ties to al-Qaida.
In the Barcelona operation, police seized documents and equipment, including passports, a computer, computer hard drives and memory cards, cell phones and a variety of currency.
Police in Spain and Thailand have been working together for 18 months investigating the operation, the ministry said.
The ministry said shutting down the cell weakened al-Qaida's counterfeiting operations.