The Caribbean island nation's government gave no details on the cause of Thompson's death, CNN reported.
Elected in 2006 on a platform of community development, Thompson was credited with bringing the Democratic Labor Party back to power, the Barbadian government Web site said.
Thompson had served in government since 1991, and his chief priorities were decentralizing government, strengthening social services and improving the economy, the government said.
Thompson was born on Christmas Day in 1961, one of seven siblings. He is survived by his wife, Marie-Josephine Mara, and three daughters.