Police said the alleged assault occurred at Parkside High School around 8 a.m. Monday while class was in session.
Surveillance video reportedly shows suspect Jocori Marece Scarborough pulling a female student from the school hallway to an area without cameras.
The victim told police that she said "no" repeatedly, but that the suspect was "ultimately" able to "force sexual intercourse." The victim later told school officials.
"The initial travels were captured on video in the school. At this point, nothing indicating whether he did or did not know that he had moved to an area where he would not be captured by video," said Sgt. David Owens, of the Wicomico Bureau of Investigations, said in a statement.
Scarborough faces several charges in the incident, including first- and second-degree rape, kidnapping and false imprisonment.
School officials said they would review security protocols. School Superintendent John Frederick called the incident "just horrible."
"None of them should be subjected to the kind of treatment that's alleged to have occurred," he told the Daily Times. "This is just horrible. Our children should be safe, our families should be safe, to do their very best."
Scarborough is currently out on bail.