William Marotta and the same-sex couple did not secure the assistance of a physician during the process, so he is not entitled to the same protection as other sperm donors, Shawnee County District Judge Mary Mattivi said.
The requirement to include a physician in the process dates back to 1973.
"The parties' self-designation of [Marotta] as a sperm donor is insufficient to relieve [Marotta] of parental rights and responsibilities," the judge wrote in the decision.
The Kansas Department of Children and Families filed the case in October 2012, asking to have Marotta declared the father of Jennifer Schreiner, 4, the Topeka Capital-Journal reported.
The state has been attempting to have Marotta declared the father, which would make him responsible for $6,000 in public assistance that the state has provided.