Oneal Ron Morris surrendered Tuesday in Miami, WFOR-TV reported. Morris, born a man and identifying as a woman, will serve the sentence in a male facility.
She was nicknamed the "Toxic Tush" doctor after her arrest in 2011.
Morris faces a manslaughter charge in Broward County. She allegedly injected silicone in 2007 into Shatarka Nuby, who died last March in a Tallahassee prison of what was diagnosed as "massive systemic silicone migration."
Morris pleaded guilty in October in Miami to practicing medicine without a license. She allegedly used Fix-A-Flat and superglue in cosmetic procedures, but authorities said alleged victims were unwilling to testify, preventing prosecutors from proving more serious charges.