Only 49 percent of respondents said they have a great deal or a fair amount of trust, Gallup reported, a full 2 percentage points lower than the previous low of 51 percent in 2007.
Americans reported the highest levels of trust in October 2001, after the Sept. 11 terrorist attacks, and in 1972 and 1974.
The most recent poll was conducted Sept. 5-8, while lawmakers were debating the use of force in Syria, but before President Barack Obama's national address.
Americans expressed record-low levels of confidence in the government's ability to handle domestic problems, as only 42 percent reported a great deal or fair amount of confidence, Gallup reported.
Gallup interviewed by telephone 1,510 adults chosen at random for the poll, and the margin of error was 3 percentage points.
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