In the suit, which was filed Wednesday, an unidentified 21-year-old man said Daniel McCormack fondled him twice when he was a young boy, the Chicago Tribune reported.
The man was a student at St. Agatha, where McCormack was the pastor, in 2003 and 2004.
The plaintiff repressed the memories from the abuse until this summer, the suit states.
The lawsuit asks for more than $50,000 in damages from Cardinal Francis George, the Tribune said.
McCormack, 44, was a popular priest until boys from his church came forward with the allegations of abuse.
He was removed from priesthood and sentenced to five years in prison in 2007.
The archdiocese has also agreed to pay out millions of dollars to settle civil suits concerning McCormack.
He is now in the custody of the Illinois Department of Human Services.
When McCormack was eligible for parole in 2010, after he served 2 ½ years of his sentence, the Illinois attorney general and county state attorney petitioned to have him committed under the Sexually Violent Persons Commitment Act.
They argued he remained a threat.