The 41-17 vote by the Senate and 77-31 vote by the House means the state has met a court deadline to enact legislation giving gun owners the right to carry a concealed weapon, though implementation of the law is still months off, the Chicago Tribune reported.
Illinois had been the only state that did not permit the carrying of concealed weapons.
The bill, required when a federal court declared the state's ban on carrying concealed firearms unconstitutional, allows Illinois residents to carry them with a permit from state police. The agency has 180 days from when the bill becomes law to set up a permit system.
Quinn wanted a bill that would limit permit holders to one concealed weapon and ban concealed weapons in places where alcohol is served. He also wanted a limit on magazine size.
The bill that passed the Legislature was a compromise. Critics, including some gun-control advocates, have accused Quinn of using the issue to boost his chances for re-election.
Quinn has appeared at black churches and with black leaders in Chicago to talk about his version of the law. At a meeting Monday, he urged lawmakers to "not genuflect before the National Rifle Association."