Along with the arrests, federal prosecutors and Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents seized 14 of the convenience stores and are investigating 40 more stores, The New York Times reported.
Charges against the suspects in an indictment scheduled to be released Monday include wire fraud and aggravated identify theft. The indictment alleges employees who were illegal immigrants were paid using Social Security numbers of children and dead people.
The indictment says the activity has been going on for more than 10 years.
Prosecutors are seeking $30 in forfeitures from the stores and their parent company.
A spokesman for the 7-Eleven corporation, Scott Matter, said the company was aware of the arrests and seizures and had been cooperating in the investigation. He said the company would have no immediate comment.