Respect Arizona and Citizens for a Better Arizona failed to collect the 335,000 valid voter signatures they needed by the 5 p.m. deadline to force a recall election, the Los Angeles Times reported.
Citizens for a Better Arizona President Randy Parraz said the two groups had collected close to 300,000 signatures.
Arpaio, the Maricopa County sheriff who a federal court ruling last week found used racial profiling to crack down on illegal immigration, said in a statement the recall effort failed "because the good people of Maricopa County, whom I'm honored to serve, rejected the wrongheaded idea of overturning an election."
Parraz said despite the setback the groups were "vindicated" by the court ruling and an attempt would be made to convince the Maricopa County Board of Supervisors not to fund Arpaio's appeal.
"This fight is not over," Parraz said.