The measure was approved 29-2 Tuesday, the Fort Worth Star-Telegram reported. It now goes to the House for action.
Opponents of the bill said it would create a barrier to marriage for the poor, who are less likely to have photo ID. But Sen. Donna Campbell, a Republican who supported the bill, said 29 states already require photo ID and have noticed no significant reduction in marriage rates.
Campbell said county clerks asked for the legislation. She said they wanted to "put a face with a name" when they issue licenses.
Texas now accepts 19 forms of documentation for marriage licenses, including insurance policies and school records. The law would require applicants to have a passport, driver's license or similar identification.