The juice had been mixed with rubbing alcohol, the San Jose Mercury News reported.
A customer told store staff he saw the woman, Ramineh Behbehanian, 50, of San Jose pull two bottles of orange juice from her purse and place them among other products in a store display cooler Monday.
A store employee wrote down her car's license plate number as she drove away, the San Francisco Chronicle reported.
Employees called 911. A team from the San Jose Fire Department tested the juice and determined it had been mixed with isopropyl alcohol.
Officers arrested Behbehanian at home Monday night. They believe she acted alone but said her motive was unclear.
Authorities said no one drank the juice.